Abstract Excerpt: This study shows that ACE2 inhibition is likely part of the mechanisms leading to lung injury in COVID-19, and that compounds such as COL-3 and CGP-60474 have potential as repurposed drugs for its treatment.
Abstract Excerpt: COL-3 (also known as incyclinide) had earlier shown activity against acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress, while entinostat and mocetinostat have been investigated for non-small-cell lung cancer. [The study proposes] that these drugs can be repurposed for COVID-19.
Abstract Conclusion: Neutrophil elastase inhibitors, sivelestat sodium hydrate and SERPINB1, both reduced lung neutrophil infiltration and pulmonary oxidative stress and finally restored pulmonary barrier function.
Abstract Excerpt: These combined in vivo and in silico studies in a high fidelity, clinically applicable animal model suggest a dynamic interplay between inflammatory, physiologic, and blood chemistry variables in the setting of sepsis and ARDS that may be dramatically altered by pleiotropic interruption of inflammation by CMT-3.
Chemically modified tetracycline 3 treatment prevented coagulopathy and protected against bowel injury. It significantly lowered plasma concentrations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. This study presents a clinically relevant model of lung injury in which CMT-3 treatment prevented the development of ARDS due in part to reduction of multiple plasma cytokines. Treatment of sepsis patients with CMT-3 could significantly reduce progression from sepsis into ARDS.
Abstract Excerpt: We propose that Chemically Modified Tetracycline-3, CMT-3 (or COL-3), a non-antimicrobial modified tetracycline with pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties, is an excellent agent for the management of sepsis and its associated complication of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).
Abstract Excerpt: Survival analysis showed a higher 96-hour survival from ARDS with COL-3 administration as compared with control (80% versus 20%; p < 0.05). Lung pathologic processes were also improved by COL-3. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-2 level increased in control but not in COL-3-treated animals. [Study] suggests that COL-3 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for ARDS treatment.
Abstract Excerpt: The inhibition of MMP-9 protects against the development of VILI [ventilator-induced lung injury] through the downregulation of neutrophil-mediated inflammation.
Abstract Excerpt: Improved survival was associated with a significant improvement in lung pathology assessed morphologically. These data suggest that COL-3 can be given up to 12 h after trauma and remain effective.
Abstract Excerpt: ...COL-3 significantly reduced the morbidity in a clinically applicable animal model, demonstrating the possibility that COL-3 may be useful in reducing the morbidity associated with sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion injury in patients.
Abstract Excerpt: The 24-hr and 48-hr mortality rates for CLP rats were 29% and 50%, whereas posttreatment with CMT-3 resulted in 0% mortality.
...results are consistent with an MMP-9-induced caspase-3 activation in response to CLP. CMT-3 posttreatment increased TIMP-1 level and thereby inhibited MMP-9, which in turn decreased TGF-beta1 and caspase-3 signaling pathways and improved survivability in septic rats.
Abstract Excerpt: These results indicate increased activity of TNF-alpha and MAPK following sepsis and demonstrate the beneficial effect of CMT-3 in preventing the increase in TNF-alpha, p38 MAPK, p42/44 MAPK, and the progression of septic shock.
Abstract Excerpt: Inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by COL-3 in a clinically relevant model of sepsis-induced acute lung injury reduces pulmonary injury and improves survival in a dose-dependent fashion. Our results suggest that prophylactic treatment with COL-3 in high-risk patients may reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Abstract Excerpt: A single prophylactic treatment with COL-3 prevented lung injury in our model of endotoxin-induced ARDS. The proposed mechanism of COL-3 is a synergistic inhibition of the terminal neutrophil effectors MMPs and NE. Similar to the universal practice of prophylaxis against gastric stress ulceration and deep venous thromboses in trauma patients, chemically modified tetracyclines may likewise be administered to prevent acute lung injury in critically injured patients at risk of developing ARDS.
Abstract Excerpt: This phase I clinical trial was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of COL-3 in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma, to describe the effects of enzyme-inducing antiseizure drugs (EIADs) on its pharmacokinetics, and to obtain preliminary evidence of activity.
Abstract Excerpt: This phase II study evaluated the antitumor activity of the tetracycline analog COL-3, a potent inhibitor of metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, on a continuous oral schedule at a dose of 50 mg/m2 daily in patients with advanced and/or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
Abstract Excerpt: COL-3, when administered as 50 mg/d, is both active and well tolerated in the treatment of AIDS-related KS. COL-3 is a promising agent for the treatment of this opportunistic neoplasm of AIDS.
Abstract Excerpt: The purpose of this research was to assess the feasibility of administering Col-3, an oral chemically modified tetracycline derivative with potent inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase activity and production, and recommend a dose on an uninterrupted once-daily schedule. The study also sought to characterize the pharmacokinetic behavior of Col-3 and seek evidence of anticancer activity.
Abstract Excerpt: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative lesion that may regress or progress. Progression is related to spindle cell proliferation and the expression of human herpes virus-8 latency genes, including latent nuclear antigen-1 (LNA-1), cyclin-D1, and bcl-2. KS regression has not been well characterized histologically. Therefore, this study was undertaken to characterize the histopathology of pharmacologically induced regressed cutaneous KS.
Abstract Excerpt: Preliminary assessment of COL-3 in 35 patients with refractory metastatic carcinoma demonstrated apparent nonlinear pharmacokinetics with highly variable oral clearance (63.9% coefficient of variance [CV]).
Abstract Excerpt: COL-3 administered orally once daily to patients with AIDS-related KS is reasonably well tolerated. The most common adverse event was dose-related photosensitivity. Antitumor activity was noted. Further evaluation of COL-3 for the treatment of KS is warranted.
Abstract Excerpt: Three of 35 patients treated with COL-3 developed sunburnlike eruptions accompanied by fever and a positive antinuclear antibody titer within 8 to 29 days of starting treatment.
Abstract Excerpt: Eight of 35 patients with cancer receiving COL-3, a tetracycline derivative with antiangiogenic properties, developed anemia while on treatment. All of these patients were enrolled on an approved Phase I clinical trial at the National Cancer Institute. Three of these patients had bone marrow examinations that revealed ringed sideroblasts. This paper describes these cases.
A Phase I clinical trial of COL-3, a non-antimicrobial tetracycline analogue, is being conducted at the NCI in patients with solid tumors.